Globalization can also be understood in the context as a multi dimensional phenomenon, including interactional processes such as computer technology and the expansion into cyberspace. I think Cha (2013), hit a point when he said, “Globalization processes are not just about linkages, but about interpenetration”. Globalization is a multi-faceted concept and with integration or exchange of ideas, laws, technology and cultures, penetration is a complex format to consider taking into account the interpretation, integration, perception, insight and discernment of the exchange on an internal and global level.
Netizen Report: The Spring of Cybercrime Laws
The Netizen Report offers an international snapshot of challenges, victories, and emerging trends in Internet rights around the world.
Globally, countries securities have focused on broader and more serious issue of international relations and threats, however, cyberspace does not conform in traditional terms of engagement, and has created opportunities for transnational computer crime, espionage and cyber war. The cybercriminal through computer technology techniques and tools can infiltrate vital infrastructures using mechanisms such as viruses, worms, malware, phishing, scams, etc.
Cybercrime is a growing conflict and concern worldwide and has increased global tension. Egyptian cyberspace provided a relatively secured and uncensored platform depicted in and around the period of President Hosni Mubarak administration, however, it was not without issues related to cybercrime. In 2010 the country was one of the top sources of password stealing Trojans, and prior Egyptian hackers were involved in one of the world’s largest cybercrime court cases. During Mubarak administration mass media was controlled and censored by the government. This led to the 2007 arrest of a blogger, and charged with insulting Islam and the president, with a four-year prison sentence (Saad, 2015). It was made an example as the first recorded instance that an individual was accused with charges relating to on-line freedom of speech.
During the 2011 Egyptian Revolution another incident related to cyberspace technology occurred, and on January 27, 2011 Minister Habib al-Adly shut down the Internet to the entire country to disrupt protestors communication (Saad, 2015). The Internet and mobile phones played a key role in communication during that period to circumvent traditional means of media, being controlled by the government. The shut down lasted six days and was restored. These instances depict the magnitude and effects cyberspace has on the political, socioeconomic, financial, technological and security infrastructure of a country.
There were reports that President Mubarak and the Muslim Brotherhood (a religious and political group founded on the belief Islam is not just a religion but a way of life) were drafting a bill to counter cybercrime. This was disputed, however, the government made it clear that article 31 of the Constitution states “The security of cyberspace is an integral part of the economic system and national security. The State shall take the necessary measure to preserve it, as regulated by law” (Saad, 2015).
Cybercrime is a global issue and effecting Egypt’s approximate 33 million Internet uses and it’s socioeconomic status with similarities throughout the world. Individuals as well as corporations are being hacked. In 2009 Trend Micro (global security software company) reported cleaning more than a million computers and 447,732 of those were in Egypt (Trend Micro, 2013). Cybercrime is still developing, and with the lack of data, outdated laws, lack of collaboration among countries, increased sophistication by hackers, and superior technology, the security threats are escalating in number and severity, becoming an increased priority among countries.
Egypt’s cyber crime bill
A new cyber crime bill, which has been kept largely hidden from the public, reveals the Egyptian government’s “draconian” plans for the Internet
Egypt’s government approved a cybercrime draft law that constitutes harsher punishment for individuals committing cybercrime. The bill includes, trespassing, accessing private communications, hacking content from an individual private or state entity, on-line fraud and producing websites in order to incite crimes. (Rollins, 2015). Many Egyptians however, believe the bill is to restrict on-line freedoms, and as rebutted “the government needs a special law for cybercrimes because current laws don’t fit all the crimes and the current legal definitions doesn’t include the new advance technology of communications, and they need a special set of laws to justify surveillance, which does not exist” (Rollins, 2015). The bill is currently awaiting executive approval.
Choucri, N., & Goldsmith, D. (2012). Lost in cyberspace: Harnessing the internet,
international relations, and global security. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 68(2), 70-77.
Rollins, T. (n.d.). Egypt’s cyber crime bill. Retrieved May 24, 2015, from
Saad, R. (n.d.). Egypt’s Draft Cybercrime Law Undermines Freedom of Expression.
Retrieved April 24, 2015, from http://www.atlanticcouncil.org/blogs/egyptsource/egypt-s-draft-cybercrime-law-undermines-freedom-of-expression
Security Globalization. (2013). Introducing Globalization, 102-133.
Trend Micro (2013). Cybercrime threatens Egyptian Business and Individuals. (n.d.).
Retrieved October 3, 2015, from http://www.trendmicro.eu/index.html
Wikipedia Muslim Brotherhood the free encyclopedia