Environmental health is not just another phenomenon in the realm of globalization; it conversely shares worldwide aspect of physical, chemical, and biological ecosystem problems. Environmental health in Egypt is widespread and is affected not only from environmental factors, but also from population growth, and assimilated and acquired effects from outside environments that accumulate, adding to an already safety and unhealthy issue.
Egypt shares most of the same environmental problems as in other countries. As stated before where industrialization and technology is essential for the growth and development of a country, it exposes the environment to an altered symbiotic relationship with nature. Exposure to these physical, chemical and biological toxicants, alter physical structures, change environment conditions and is exposing our world to an unhealthy and destructive trajectory. In Egypt 83% of the industries are located in Greater Cairo and Alexandra (Anwar, 2003).
In relationship to the environment the byproducts produced from such things as car emissions, agricultural pesticides, dredging, industrial effluents, sewage, among others, have a multitude of negative effects, that not only effect Egypt, but impact neighboring countries, branching out globally (Anwar, 2003). These environmental factors have also been known to exacerbate the mutagenic and carcinogenic processes, altering the biological and genetic development, growth and reproductive health.
Per Anwar (2003) “This also effects a broad social environment, which includes housing, urban development, land-use, transportation, industry, and agriculture”, and as Huppert and Sparks (2006) so eloquently state, “ The natural world can be a dramatic, dynamic and dangerous place.” Many extremes to the natural environment are occurring with increased frequency as habitats are changing and having crucial consequences.
Egypt’s environment current issues include: Click on Link http://www.indexmundi.com/egypt/environment_current_issues.html to open information sheet containing a list and explanation (Index Mundi, 2015).
Other things of serious concern especially to Egypt are the urbanization and population growth that is debilitating the Nile. Windblown sands increase soil salination, and further add salt content to soil decreasing it viability to grow crops. Desertification, which is an increase of desert-like conditions brought about by animal overgrazing, decrease viable productive soil or climate changes. Water pollution where natives dump garbage or sewage from industrialization is released. Agricultural pesticides or herbicides can create toxins to plants and food, and the biggest discussed global concern is regarding “greenhouse effects and climate changes” occurring as a result of long time usage of industrial effluents and fossil fuels destruction of ozone atmospheric layers.
Egypt is susceptible to periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash floods, landslides, hot windstorms, dust storms and sandstorms, and according to the Organization for Economic Development the Nile Delta is diminishing at a rate of 3-5 mm per year. This is a great concern to Egypt, being the majority of Egyptian population inhabit around the Nile. Climate changes are speculated to affect Egypt’s tourism, due to rising sea levels and ocean acidification, and threaten an already precarious balance of water allocation between Egypt and other adjacent states. Also these climate changes bring about food insecurities, the reduction in grain production and with conditions such as water pollution, acidification, and ecosystem interruption, which mean fish and other wild animals will die and decrease in number (Sterman, 2009).
Egypt has been receiving warnings provided by the Climate Institute, and has committed to a 20% by 2020, this is an initiative Egypt assumed, and took a leadership role by engaging Middle Eastern and North African nations to mitigate and commit to “produce 20% of its energy sources from renewal sources”, and they have been funded 300 million dollars from World Bank “Clean Technology Fund”, with plans to further it with a fed-in-tariff to support further development (Sterman, 2009).
Anwar, W. (n.d.). Environmental health in Egypt. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 206, 339-350.
Huppert, H., & Sparks, S. (2006). Extreme Natural Hazards: Population Growth, Globalization and Environmental Change. In Philosophical Transactions: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences (Vol. 364, pp. 1875-1888). Cambridge: Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society.
Index Mundi (2015). Egypt Environment – current issues. (n.d.). Retrieved June 30, 2015, from http://www.indexmundi.com/egypt/environment_current_issues.html
Sterman, D. (n.d.). Climate changes in Egypt: Rising sea level, dwindling water supplies. Retrieved July 1, 2009, from http://www.climate.org/topics/international-action/egypt.html