Haiti no doubt has been negatively affected by modernization and dependency theories and process. The dependency phenomenon does not occur overnight, is multifaceted, evolving, and is reflected by Haiti history from colonialism, dictatorship, and corruption. One major focal point in Haiti was during the Duvalier regime, a shift was made from agriculture to textiles, which provided less wealth to the Haitian people, and more wealth to the Duvalier’s at the expense of the people. This occurred primarily because the capital made in the textile industry was easier to tax than the capital made by subsistence farmers. This was reflected by Haitian annual GDP growth reported from 1965-1980 as .9%, when Haiti was still primarily agricultural. From 1980-1990, after the shift to textiles, annual GDP growth went down to -2.3% (Cain, 2012).
The shift to textiles financially tied the Haitian GDP to the international community, in a way that Haitians now needed to import the raw materials and machinery from other nations to produce, creating a double edge sword. The Haitian reliance on importing materials for the textile industry created a trade embargo in 1994, which in turn cause further economic
destabilization. By the end of 1994, the GDP growth rate took another dramatic declined to -12% (Cain, 2012). The embargo damaged the Haitian economy so extreme that it was only beginning to recuperate at the time of the 2010 earthquake.
This led the Haitian people demanding different governmental representation, a democratic institution, and civil and political liberties, which lead to violent aggression and rebellion. The situation was only met with military aggression by Duvalier regime, and the Haitian government continued to play in the sandbox with other international countries, by continuing to support their trade and economic policies without developing their own. Governmental corruption continued throughout many regimes, leading to extort and profit from these textile taxations and other exploited economic practices progressing to political instability and economic collapse.
Haiti has sustained some modernization and development taking into consideration its history, geography and culture. Many projects such as rebuilding energy infrastructures, roads, lighting, building, sanitation, water, etc., these forms of modernizing can drive the progressive improvement of nations (small preview of enterprising farmers below).
Crain, N. (2012, May 17). Haiti: Two decades of intervention and very little to show. Retrieved from http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a567583.pdf
Diaz, A., Trapp, A., & Feldman, A. (2008). Haiti Background Report. Retrieved from http://www.lehigh.edu/~bm05/courses/Haiti_paper5.version2.pdf Lehigh University